Aircraft wheels and tires are required to work in extreme conditions, often supporting up to 340 tons and accelerating at speeds in excess of 150 miles per hour during takeoff. Furthermore, they are subject to varied environmental stresses while in flight and during taxiing. While cruising, tires are exposed to temperatures below -40°C and, at touchdown, tire temperatures can briefly exceed 200°C. Additionally, during a rejected takeoff, a fully loaded aircraft accelerates to takeoff speed, and then must stop on the remaining runway. In this scenario, tires must withstand extreme heat and stress until the aircraft comes to a complete stop. As the aircraft tire and wheel assembly is subjected to multiple takeoffs and landings each day, there are few aircraft components that take more daily abuse.


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Passenger aircraft almost always feature pressurized cabins, ensuring that all individuals are provided with treated air that is at a pressure and density level that is comfortable and safe for breathing. While pressure is important for safe breathing, so too is the cleanliness of air. As passengers are contained within a limited space for long periods of time, pressurized aircraft have specifically been designed to allow old air to be removed from the aircraft so that clean, fresh air can replace it. In order to carry out these processes, pressurized aircraft rely on the airplane ventilation system.


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A lubricant is a substance used to minimize friction and heat between moving surfaces, and they may be used in a variety of applications ranging from vehicles to industrial machinery. While the lubrication used for aviation applications provides for the reduction of friction just like many other types, aircraft lubrication in particular must meet higher performance requirements in order to be approved for use in commercial models. This is due to the extreme conditions that many aviation parts operate under as well as the immensely regulated industry that demands the highest degree of scrutiny for safety and efficiency.


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The electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) is the electronic display technology on a flight deck display system. An EFIS typically consists of three main parts: the Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS), Primary Flight Display (PFD), and Multi-Function Display (MFD). early EFISs used cathode ray tube displays, although modern systems utilize a liquid crystal display.


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From the immense heat caused by fuel combustion to constant vibration as a result of moving systems, aircraft components and assemblies undergo high amounts of stress each operation. As time goes on, wear and tear to components can prove detrimental as they reach the possibility of failure. To ensure that flight operations can continue to be carried out smoothly and safely, one should always have their aircraft inspected and maintained on regular intervals and before each flight.


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